Terms and Definitions

  • Allegation.  An assertion made with little or no proof.
  • Association Fallacy.  An association fallacy is an informal inductive fallacy of the hasty-generalization or red-herring type and which asserts, by irrelevant association and often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes referred to as guilt by association and honor by association. (Wikipedia)
  • Fact . An event, item of information, or state of affairs existing, observed, or known to have happened, and which is confirmed or validated to such an extent that it is considered ‘reality.’
  • Imply. Imply to indicate or suggest without being explicitly stated; Inferred from circumstances; known indirectly.
  • Infer. To derive as a conclusion from facts or premises.
  • Evidence.
    • A thing or things helpful in forming a conclusion or judgment: The broken window was evidence that a burglary had taken place. Scientists weigh the evidence for and against a hypothesis.
    • Something indicative; an outward sign: evidence of grief on a mourner’s face.
    • Law The documentary or oral statements and the material objects admissible as testimony in a court of law.
  • Hearsay. Unverified, unofficial information gained or acquired from another and not part of one’s direct knowledge.
  • Opinion. A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.
  • Truth.  Conforming to fact or actuality;  A statement proven to be accepted or true.
  • Data are facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
  • Assumption. A  thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.
  • Speculation. Ideas or guesses about something that is not known.
  • Conjecture. Inference formed without proof or sufficient evidence.
  • Anecdotal.  Not necessarily true or reliable; based on personal accounts rather than facts or research.

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