“Critical thinking is the process of reaching a decision or judgment by analyzing, evaluating, and reasoning with facts and data presented.”
Book Excerpts: T. Edward Damer. Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments, 7th Edition”, Boston, MA
A system for building a “good argument.”
Five criteria of a good argument: These five categories deal with:
- the structural demands of a well-formed argument,
- the relevance of the argument’s premises,
- the acceptability of the argument’s premises,
- the sufficiency of the relevant and acceptable premises to support the conclusion of the argument, and
- the effectiveness of the argument’s rebuttal to blunt the force of the strongest criticisms against the argument or the position it supports.
- “A fallacy is broadly defined as an error in logic and also to a mistaken or false belief.”
- ” A fallacy is a violation of one or more of the five criteria of a good argument.”
Fallacies are categorized by the criterion of a good argument that they violate. The sixty named fallacies treated in the book are organized in Chapters 5 through 9 by the criterion violated, with one chapter devoted to each criterion. An extended discussion of each fallacy explains and illustrates exactly how the fallacy violates the criterion in question.
- Damer Glossary of Fallacies
- Damer Intellectual Code – Basic rules of intellectual behavior that support the development of good arguments.
Common Critical Thinking Fallacies. Critical thinking is the process of reaching a decision or judgment by analyzing, evaluating, and reasoning with facts and data presented. However, nobody is thinking critically 100% of the time. Logical reasoning can be prone to fallacies. … A fallacy is an error in reasoning. When there is a fallacy in the reasoning, conclusions are less credible and can be deemed invalid.
Additional Information – Rhetoric – Dr. Mark Foreman. Rhetoric and rhetorical devices can subtly impede critical thinking. “Keywords:”
- Rhetoric – “the art of persuasive writing and speaking. The purpose is to persuade others to adopt a belief.”
- Rhetorical Force. “The attempt to persuade someone to adopt a belief based on the psychological or emotive responses one has toward the idea.”
- Common Rhetorical Devices – Euphisms and Dysphemisms, Weaselers, Downplayers, Stereotypes, Innuendo, Loaded Question, Ridicule/Sarcasm, Hyperbole, Proof Surrogates.
Counterarguments A counterargument involves acknowledging standpoints that go against your argument and then re-affirming your argument. This is typically done by stating the opposing side’s argument, and then ultimately presenting your argument as the most logical solution. The counterargument is a standard academic move that is used in argumentative essays because it shows the reader that you are capable of understanding and respecting multiple sides of an argument.